Innovation Lessons from a Mouse

ImageOn July 3 2013, Douglas C Engelbart died. He was the inventor of, among other revolutionary computer advances, the computer mouse, and his history is worth considering for what it says about innovation.

In 1968, Engelbart made the first public demonstration of the mouse at a computer conference in San Francisco in front of over a thousand of the world’s top computer scientists. The public introduction of the mouse at that presentation, today called “the mother of all demos”, had little impact on the acceptance or use of the mouse at that time. In fact, the computer mouse languished for over a decade at Xerox’s Palo Alto Research Center until Steve Jobs saw the mouse during a Xerox PARC visit and in 1984 introduced the mouse to consumers with the Macintosh. Jobs knew that acceptance of the mouse by consumers would be difficult, though, so he eliminated cursor keys from the Mac to force consumers to use the mouse as the only means of moving the cursor. “Jobs did not believe that the customer was always right; if they wanted to resist using a mouse, they were wrong.” (Steve Jobs, p. 137).

The facts that the computer mouse did not naturally get accepted upon its public display in 1968 and that consumers in 1984 had to be forced to use the mouse define two of the top challenges to innovation: (i) customers can’t tell you what innovation they want, and (ii) customers will be resistant to innovation that changes their current way of doing things.

Henry Ford famously said of his development of the car, “If I had asked people what they wanted, they would have said faster horses.” Customers are well known to be unreliable sources for innovative ideas and for assessing the value of innovative ideas because their only point of reference is what they already know—they can’t tell you that they need something new unless it is an obvious modification to what already exists. This makes sense when you consider that one of the key characteristics of innovation is risk: if customers are asking for a technology, there’s no risk-taking in giving it to them and therefore there’s no innovation being created. No one was asking for multiband compression in 1989, and the introduction of wide dynamic range compression in hearing aids was initially rejected by experienced hearing aid wearers; they wanted more gain, having only experienced linear hearing aids, while compression actually provided less! No hearing aid wearer ever said that they want their next hearing aids to have frequency lowering—in the early 2000s, most hearing aid experts predicted that frequency lowering would not have value in a hearing aid—yet today frequency lowering has provided benefit to hundreds of thousands of people with severe high-frequency hearing loss.

“Customers don’t know what they want until we’ve shown them,” said Jobs. This is because customers often don’t realize that they have an unmet need until a solution appears. Humans are adept at finding and getting used to workarounds to problems so they don’t realize that the potential for an improved solution exists. Proctor & Gamble employees once conducted consumer research about the user-friendliness of their detergent boxes. Their customer focus groups did not reveal any problems, but one of those customers was observed to keep a screwdriver beside their box of Tide. Why was the screwdriver there, the P&G researchers asked? To open the box of Tide, replied the customer, not recognizing that they had so gotten used to a workaround to a problem with P&G’s product that they were unable to recognize the opportunity for improvement. This is why superstar innovators like IDEO, the world’s top design firm, rely on customer observation rather than focus groups for their breakthrough customer insights.

Some innovations are accepted right away by consumers but, like the computer mouse, many take time for people to recognize the benefit that the innovation provides. This is not unlike acceptance of gain by first-time hearing aid users, who initially don’t want their full gain prescription and are satisfied with insufficient audibility but eventually learn to value the full gain prescription that meets the needs of their hearing loss.

As technology advances—with wireless technology accessories, new signal processing features, advanced user interfaces, connected hearing health—you will be faced with these innovation challenges of how to get your patients to accept innovation and to accept the change in behavior that some innovation requires. You yourself will also be faced with this challenge as new tools for fitting your patients are created and new hearing health solutions for better meeting the unique needs of your patients are developed. Similar to the introduction of innovation throughout history, many of the innovations that will be introduced to your business may not be obvious solutions that you have been asking for and may require a change in your process with patients. When the new computer mouse of the hearing aid field is introduced, will you give it a try and see if it benefits your business and your patients?

Inspiring Innovation

I gave a 25 minute talk on innovation to over 3000 customers of Starkey Hearing Technologies in Las Vegas. It’s purpose was to educate people on what innovation is beyond buzzwords and to inspire people to innovate themselves. I also walk through my own innovation journey, highlighting the innovation challenges that I faced as a I developed a Research department for Starkey. I think it was a fun talk and I received great feedback from people. I continue to give similar versions of this talk.

The talk is in two parts:

Not Suitable for Journalists or Young Young She-Goats

By the looks of this news story, it seems that some Israeli journalists should have read my Oct 27 post on how poor online translators have the potential to cause international turmoil (and how using Google’s Language Tools might be the solution).

Apparently, Israeli journalists used the online translator Babel Fish to create Dutch-language versions of questions for the Dutch foreign ministry. They ended up with moronic drivel that included

GoatHelloh bud, enclosed five of the questions in honor of the foreign minister: The mother your visit in Israel is a sleep to the favor or to the bed your mind on the conflict are Israeli Palestinian.

Not surprisingly, the Dutch government officials were not amused. Also not surprising were the poor results obtained by the journalists given that my test of Babel Fish’s Dutch translation ability converted Here’s looking at you, kid into Examining you here young, young she-goat.

Ream Oeuvred Your Care Eons

I’ve been sitting in the Phoenix airport for almost two hours now listening to their synthesized-voice announcements over and over again and I am thoroughly sick of this speech synthesis technology. The intonation is wrong on much of what it says, similar to what one would expect from someone reading English text when they are not too familiar with the language.

I keep expecting one of the announcements to begin with, “Hello, my name a Borat,” and end with, “Iaye liiike.” The phrase “removed your carry-ons,” in a message that repeats every ten minutes, has the prosody of a five-year old rapping to polka music.

The apparent lack of interest in using a system that sounds more human-like is as disturbing as the speech itself. I suppose that I am more sensitive to such things than other people given my interests in speech&hearing, but I wonder if Bobby Johnston noticed the announcement asking “Bob Eee Johns Ton” to meet his party at baggage claim.

I am reminded of American Express’s recent change of their automated phone system in using a voice that sounds like a young Valley Girl. Is this really what AmEx customers want to hear when they call about a financial inquiry? I appreciate that automatic speech (synthesis) systems provide efficiency and cost-savings, but they do so at the additional potential cost of annoyed listeners.

(For those of you still scratching your heads on the meaning of this post’s title, read it out loud. Then compare what you just said with "removed your carry-ons"  🙂

Yahoo! Research

Yahoo! opened a research lab one block from the SHRC. While we were created to do basic research and work with UC Berkeley, Yahoo!’s lab is a full-blown lab filled with Berkeley students and professors. I was invited to their open house but had to miss it because of the Cognitive conference in Indiana. Here’s a post, though, by someone who did go to the open house, with additional comments on the usefulness of the lab compared to Google:
O’Reilly Radar > Yahoo! Research Berkeley Launches.

Speaking for Dummies

Great, the day after I give my talk, Secrets of No-Yawn Speeches appears on the Businessweek website. I’ve been giving conference&convention talks for a while and feel pretty comfortable about them, but still it would have been good to get "reinspired" by these comments.

By the way, one of points of advice was to only mention your company once. The first keynote speaker Steve Burrill, Biotech guru, only mention his company a couple times and was one of the most informative talks I’ve seen (twice, saw it at a BayBio meeting and actually modified his key slide for my recent slides). But the second keynote speaker, Fred Colen, spent his entire talk discussing Boston Scientific and their stent technologies. Not that the latter was bad, he essentially gave a history of their drug-eluting stent and its impact on their business, just that it went against the BW advice and was definitely a long infomercial for BS.

Empty City

After the Biotech conference yesterday, I had dinner and then spent about 45
minutes walking around downtown St. Paul. I like to do this in a city to get a feel for
what it has to offer and how active its nightlife is–in addition to the fact
that I was looking for a convenience store to buy some bottled water and orange
juice for my hotel room. Aside for a few restaurants, the city seemed deserted
on this Thursday evening around 9pm. It wasn’t exactly "28 Days Later",
but I did feel a little bit like the Omega Man walking past block after block
of darkened storefronts. I found my way to Lowertown, a hip part of St. Paul. I had read about
with residential lofts, but all I found were a couple bars with live music–nothing
to help my juice&water quest. I guess no one gets the munchies in the
evening here. As for my hotel, a Sheraton, it’s shop closed at 6. Reminded me
of a conference I attended in downtown Pittsburgh where you could
hear the shutters closing and security gates slamming shut at 5:30 as the  business workers rushed home to the burbs, the
wind kicking up dust and blowing tumbleweeds behind them.